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荣格心理学与中国文化的意义《第一届》

发布人:John Beebe       2013-01-28 字体:

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摘要:

作为到中国广州朝圣的西方人,总应该有所奉献,这似乎已经是一种传统。首先我可以提到达摩,他在公元527年来到广州。我们这个城市也有一个关于5位仙人的传说,他们来自天上,骑着5只山羊,每只山羊口中都衔着谷穗……当这5位仙人确信由于他们所带来的粮食,广州城将不会再有饥荒的时候,他们便飞向远方,5只山羊则变成了石头。那么,当我飞走的时候,我今天对你们所说的话,可能会变成石头,而你们可能把它写成论文,于是我们也就有了可供人们阅读的东西,或许有那么一天,这些内容还会被刻在石板上。但今天我们活着,我想告诉大家一个带我来这里的山羊的故事。

了解《易经》的人都会知道其中的第34卦,其上六爻是关于一只羊用角抵住树篱,并被藩篱缠在了那里。《易经》中说:“羝羊触藩,不能退,不能遂。”但是,《易经》同时还告诉我们:“无攸利,艰则吉。”于是,我也能意识到,在试图向你们解释与说明荣格心理学是如何与中国文化结合起来的时候,颇具难度和挑战。

今天,荣格已经不仅仅是一个个人的名字,而是一位历史人物。一些学者记录过荣格与东方思想的有关历史。我会特别提到约翰·克拉克(John Clarke)所著的《荣格与东方思想》一书。我希望不久该书就能翻译用中文出版。因为该书是关于荣格与中国文化,以及荣格与印度文化和日本文化的最好、最准确的记载。荣格非常重视中国文化,非常关注佛教思想,这可追溯到他学生时代阅读叔本华的时候,一直到其生命即将结束,他都仍然在阅读有关佛教的著作。

 

荣格对于中国文化有着一生的追求,他在其《心理类型》一书中谈论中国的“道”,在《金花的秘密》一书中发挥道家的“无为”的思想。尤其需要提出的是,荣格坚信维尔海姆翻译《易经》对整个西方都会产生的深远的意义,事实也是如此,该书的英译本在美国深具影响,同时也是国际畅销书。就我个人来说,荣格为《易经》英译本所撰写的前言,是我最喜欢的荣格著述。

戴维·罗森(David Rosen),他随后将为大家讲演,强调了中国的“道”对于荣格整个生活与思想的深远的影响。而我自己在《深度整合》(Integrity in Depth)一书中,也突出了“德”对于理解荣格心理学的重要意义。于是,在我看来,老子《道德经》中“道”与“德”这两个概念,对于从根本上理解荣格心理学具有核心的意义与作用。

 

然而我今天要谈的不是荣格心理学形成的历史。这个主题是非常高深的,而是要谈荣格心理治疗在日常生活和工作中的应用以及荣格思想对我们的工作和生活的影响。正如要了解伟大哲人的人格特征,不是件易事,诸如老子像什么,孔子像什么,佛祖像什么;而相比之下了解他们的追随者以及他们人格化的精神就容易的多。我谈谈我与两位老师交往的经历,两位老师都曾与荣格有私交,并且学会了用荣格的方式看待事物。我深信荣格与中国文化结合的思想深深的影响了他们做研究、和做医生和心理治疗学家的方式。

现在要想成为荣格心理分析学家,必须先经历荣格心理分析学家的心理治疗。我的第一位荣格心理分析学家是一位名叫奥斯特曼的女性,我刚认识她的时候,是一位年轻的精神病学家,刚完成斯坦福大学住院医生的培训,那时我深深为医学着迷,为成为一名医生和精神病学家所打动,我对医学和精神分析深感兴趣,它们的威力可改变人们的精神面貌。故我对奥斯特曼博士如何将一位精神病学家改变成荣格心理分析学家很感兴趣。她讲述了这样一个有趣的故事,当初她是学病毒学的,是位微生物学家。当她首次感到有必要进行荣格心理治疗时,已是一名职业女性了。事实上她先做了一个梦,梦见一位又老又病、又疲乏的妇人躺在床上。然后她立即就意识到那位妇人就是自己并且当时正处在某种程度的困境中。她需要去看心理治疗家以找出症结所在。她进行了成功的心理分析。作为分析的一部分,她修完了做医生所学的学业,并想继续成为一名精神病学家,所以她去了我们城市最负盛名的精神研究所。那是一座宝塔形有名建筑,说它像宝塔是因为它有挺拔的结构,可以将宝塔比喻为精神探索。

这位成熟的女士已进行了数年的荣格心理分析并且准备开始学习成为一名精神病学家,在去学习的前一天晚上她又做了一个梦:当时她正在看着一座有着塔的楼房,塔的顶上有一男一女在摔跤,一直摔着并昼夜不断。奥斯特曼做了这样一个梦,并有幸在三潘市遇到了荣格最有名的一位同事梅尔博士,此人已出版了许多著作。奥特斯曼将自己的梦告诉了梅尔博士:“在精神研究所的楼顶上我看到一男一女整日整夜不停地在那里摔跤。”梅尔博士答道:“他俩从没下来。”但奥特斯曼自己得先下来。当时在加利福尼亚或世界其他地方,个人迟早都可以取得精神治疗师的执照,但获得执照最短也需接受为期一年的精神治疗培训。奥特斯曼在接受了为期一年的培训后就离开了,因为她的梦暗示她不能长期培训下去,否则对她不利。奥特斯曼总是不厌其烦谈论荣格有关“自然”的理论。中国文化就有一个很恰当的字眼可以用来表述它,那就是“地”,你知道还有另外三个措辞,那就是“天、地、人”。可以用来回想梦中的男人和女人在如此高的塔顶摔跤,我们必须考虑他们离地有多远!

我们知道荣格曾谈“道”,人们精彩地将“道”理解为通过地球的水路。《易经》第2卦,即坤卦,描述自然之道:“直、方、大,不习无不利。”这一点似乎与男人和女人在塔顶上摔跤毫无关系。荣格不喜欢西方哲学,它总是让人陷入无休止争辩的那一面。他认为“自然”更好,或称谓“自然哲学”。这就是奥特斯曼曾反复教导我的。当我与我的梦进行搏斗时,总想用各种各样西方的观点去理解它们的意义或去解释这些梦的意象,我觉得我必须说出我对他们行为的感受,而她认为这是自我搏斗的自然表现。

现在谈谈另一位我尊敬的老师汉德森博士,我同他一起工作的时候,已创立了三藩市的荣格研究院,并且是荣格最长久、最忠实的追随者。汉德森要不是早年在1929年就结识了荣格,恐怕很难将汉德森形象化。在荣格心理学中谈到维尔海姆在翻译《易经》之前,有一个人出现在他的梦中。当时维尔海姆生活在青岛,他梦见一位精神矍铄的老人向他走来,老子自称“老道”并想告诉维尔海姆有关“山”的秘密,因此当我初次看到汉德森博士的时候觉得他太像“老道”了。于是对他说:“你好像一直都在这儿”。

汉德森博士并不是通常的美国人,而是拥有典型的英国人的“面孔”,也可以用荣格心理学中的“面具”。他出现在人们的面前总是一副拘谨的样子,像从前的人。他又有点像另一位英国化的美国人艾略特(T.S. Eliot)。今天类似的人在美国已不多见了。

当我首次去见他的时候望着他说:“我就是喜欢你从来不管别人怎么想。”汉德森博士说:“我总是有自己独立的思想。”当他清清喉咙正想继续此话题时,他的舌头僵的说不出话来。接着,他再次清一下自己的喉咙要说什么的时候,舌头似乎被困在嘴边仍然说不出话来。于是我就一直在说,就像什么也没有发生似的。但当我讲完了一大段话,稍微停下来调整呼吸的时候,汉德森博士望着我说:“我刚才结巴说不出话,是因为你说我从不管别人怎么想是不对的,在我的一生中,我非常在意别人对我的看法;年轻时,我曾不得不离开学校去一个离家很远的学校寄宿,为了自我保护不得不扮出一副面无表情的脸,英国人称之为面无表情的脸,我已经习惯了。”

那么想象一下,这可是发生在心理治疗开始时的情景。注意,汉德森博士没有隐藏在我投射过去的老道的后面:“永恒的、带着上天的智慧、超然脱俗”——这都是我移植到他身上的。留意他开始说的话:“我总是具有独立的思想。”但是注意他的身体并不让他那样做。注意,他自己觉察到了他自己及所有的一切。

对于一个荣格心理分析家来说,我们意识心理的某一部分不让我们去尝试与接触的,就是荣格所指的“道”。当道向我们显现的时候,我们对它的尊重与荣耀,也就是我认为应该称之的“德”。而在和汉德森的最初一个小时中最使我感动的,就是他的真实,他生活在自己所认可的价值与真实中,丝毫不顾及那种权威的外表。就像我刚与汉德森博士接触时所获得的印象那样,这种情况在心理分析中称为“移情”,即自性发展可能性的投射(原型移情或自居状态是荣格分析心理学中的专门术语),当我做心理分析时我是想了解汉德森博士真实的自性,而不是从来不存在并不真实的虚幻性的那一面,对许多人来说心理治疗是带着那种压抑和焦虑,西方称之为“脆弱性”,心理分析的目的是使之消失,如果抵抗压抑,压抑就会消失或服了一片阿司匹林头疼就会消失。当汉德森坚持他外表看上去的样子,那么他也就跟我一样脆弱。我忽然明白,我的脆弱性就是我那真实的自我,它永远也不会消失。我坚信这一点汉德森是从荣格那学到的,而荣格又是从老子那学到的。

现在我谈一下一个人学习心理治疗时的情况,当我痛奥特斯曼一起工作的时候,一些有关阴阳的问题常浮现在我的脑海里,这就是症结所在。因为在早期学习心理分析时我经常头痛,那时我的精神被强烈的直觉缠绕着,我被荣格心理学深深迷住了。读着他那对神秘和原型的叙述,就好似拥有了一把通向神秘世界,包括所有宗教世界所有有关精神世界的金钥匙。这方面的知识了解越多,我就头痛的越厉害。就这样我就中断了进一步的学习和研究,研究和了解的再多也不解决问题。有一天晚上我做了一个梦,也许那个梦对克服这种情况会有帮助,梦是这样的:“我走进一个房间看见一个中国妇女坐在椅子上,她衣着简朴,房间几乎是空荡荡的,她看上去不快乐,她丈夫是个赌徒把他们经营洗衣店所赚的钱都输光了,所以就没钱为家里添置物品了。”就这样一个梦。刚才已谈过奥特斯曼,我认为不会去想象甚至是从那微不足道的地方着手,她要我将梦的意义弄清楚,我给她介绍与此梦有关的情形,在三藩市随处可见中国人经营洗衣店。在我居住的街角我见到一间与梦中妇女所开的很相像的洗衣店,故梦中的妇女是一位特殊的女性,即我洗衣店里的吴女士,她与我在很多地方都不同,她内向,但比我现实,她不是一位靠想象或直觉活着的那种人,而是荣格心理学种被称为有激情的那种人,她工作勤奋并富有成效。这意识告诉我,我还没有很好的发展成熟。经常会出现这样的情况:当一个人未能获得完全发展时,他的梦中会出现一个异性人物,这人物可以属于另一背景下的,她代表了当时现实情况下部分自我,我一无所有,她不快乐因为她也一无所有。她丈夫赌输了他们所有的积蓄,这是本我的生动写照;我不赌钱,但与我自身的能量赌博,我当时是一位精神病学家,当我做为心理医生为患者心理分析他们带来的梦时有一种兴奋感并达到忘我的境界。一天工作下来感到头很痛,恰如给我经营洗衣店的吴女士。在我兴奋地倾听患者有关梦的原型想象时,我也得考虑一下自己所能承受的身体状况,听完一个病人的诉说后休息一会,活动一下身体,给自己找一个完全放松自我的机会。当我精力开始恢复的时候,发现我的身体可以感应到患者无法用语言表达的信息,这样比追寻患者的原型象征要获得的信息还要多,这又如我后来梦中的吴女士,梦到她变得快乐了,她丈夫带她外出娱乐。

当我们阅读荣格心理学中的“阿尼玛”(专业术语,拉丁语意思为灵魂),“阿尼玛”的意思是将我们不愿让人看到的那部分人格潜藏到自身,我们可以对它做出选择,一旦我们与灵魂中的另一面建立起了联系,那么整合性的人格就出现了;这就是人格中的“德性”,米尔博士将它翻译为中文“德”或“正直”,其实就是中国文化描述人格的“德性”一词。但有时也将做梦称之为“德”,如果没有人格背景就不会发生上述那种情况;荣格称之为“灵性德真实性”,荣格并未发现梦的潜力,荣格是继叔本华和尼采之后向人们开启潜意识之门德四位最伟大的深度心理学家之一。如埃里博格的《潜意识的发现》,杰尼特是首位提出潜意识观点的人,并且强调了灵性的独立性和自主性。这种观点的含义是潜意识拥有它自己的指向。奥特斯曼的梦,汉德森结巴以及我头痛的症状均为潜意识独立性的实证。弗洛伊德是首位强调如何富于创造性的潜意识。他将潜意识比喻为伟大的诗人。我的一位女朋友说:“太有趣了”,她在20世纪40年代接收了荣格心理分析治疗,她一直坚持到70年代每天早晨刷牙后都记录下当晚的梦境。弗洛伊德《梦的解释》表明梦的诗意,人们常会想到用他的方法来诠释梦,也常用他的语言来叙说梦,并用梦中的形象来描述人当时做出的状态。莎士比亚和李白的作品中存在着梦的潜意识的表现形式,即潜意识诗性的多样性。阿德勒向我们解释勒每个感觉每个梦的灵性具有其合理性,梦试着为我们做某些工作或营造某些东西,或可能我们赖以生存的幻境,或者是我们需要看到的真相。

荣格认识上述三位精神分析心理学家先驱并从他们那儿掌握勒大量知识,荣格说心灵比杰尼特所想的更具有创造性,比阿德勒所想的更具合目性,它的合目性实际就是驱使人们沿着生活的道路前进并且追寻着自性实践和自我完善之路。荣格称之为“特殊的智性背景”。在有关心灵真实性方面,荣格比上述三位先驱走得更远,杰尼特有时用法语指出心灵潜意识就好比一种说话方式,弗洛伊德和阿德勒深信心灵潜意识一直在极力保护我们来抵御我们从来没有看到的现实的侵扰,荣格认为心灵的潜意识是真实的。故男人和女人在精神分析大楼顶上摔跤,那么楼顶上发生的事情也是真实的;如果一个女人在我的梦中没事,那么可以说真的不会有事。所以直到我们谈及事件的状态时,不明白近来有关精神研究院的患者是否需要心理分析或沉思治疗的争论,我也解决不了自己头痛的问题,梦中与我有关的中国妇女就是荣格所称的心灵的真实性,真实太精彩了,梦给了我信心并驱使我了解并理解其所需求。所以我花大量时间研究中国哲学,更重要的是我深入研究了《易经》,我认为我们已把原型图画放在了地上,我们都可以看见他们,《易经》的64卦向我们展现了“道”的人格方面的基本内涵,每一位寻求心理分析治疗的患者,他们的困惑都包含在其中的一卦中。荣格理解《易经》呈现的真实性与西方人梦中呈现的真实性是一致的。当我同奥特斯曼博士一起完成了我的工作,并且打算与汉德森博士一起做深入的研究时,我对此有生动的体验。我已告知你们与汉德森博士刚会面时所发生的一切,但未告诉你们在那之前的一个晚上所发生的情况。在奥特斯曼博士考虑我和女同事合作工作了很久并建议我同男同事共事后的不久,我又做了一个梦,梦中的我首次去汉德森博士处赴约,在他的候诊室里,注意到有个妇女有点厌烦地看着我,在15岁地时候我曾经常同她一起跳舞,后来都上了大学,从此天各一方,可以说是她另一类女性,而此时她以成熟女人的眼光看着我,面带着怀疑的表情,好像在问“我是谁?”她名叫亨。当时在去见汉德森博士前决定查阅一下《易经》,预测一下我对汉德森博士的分析以及同他一起工作的前景如何,我使用了中国汉代发明的掷硬币的方法,《易经》问卦22卦,意“亨”,我对这种巧合深感惊讶。

在去见汉德森之前的一天晚上(我刚才将他比作老道),我做了一个梦,去到一个即将关门的图书馆,在图书馆我发现其中一个书架全是荣格的心理学书籍。由于贪心想去别处找更多的心理学书籍,梦中的我迷失了方向,回不到放荣格心理学书籍的书架,最后在图书馆即将关门的那一刻才找到那个书架,但已无时间认真挑选,关门的铃声就响了,我只得迅速从书架上取下一本,只是很薄的一小本,当我望到书名时很失望,书名叫做《英国风俗》。我将此梦讲给汉德森博士听,他说:“正合适,正合适”。荣格曾给一位奥匈帝国的公主做心理分析治疗,她是一位德国皇族成员,荣格说对她进行了及其成功的心理分析,因为她言谈举止优雅,荣格的意思是说,不是公主对他好,也不是她的行为对荣格好,而是她以正确的态度对待潜意识所包括的内容,并且潜意识同她那正确的态度和行为恰到好处的整合到一起了。有趣的是古代的圣贤之士有时也占卜预测他们的表面特征,荣格在《易经》前言中曾提到孔子一次占卦《易经》,得到答复使他感到有点恼火,第22卦,亨,六二爻“贲其须”。据说孔子曾认为这种太琐碎的事不应该上《易经》。

而当我在梦中取下的是《英国风俗》而不是荣格其他的心理学书籍,我的潜意识已向我说明了什么,因为我觉得去发掘那些深层的潜意识例如阿尼玛对我毫无用处,这样做只能使我们在与他人相处时变得更加无理性(情绪化),更加尖刻,更加暴躁。纵然你们自己的圣人,如孔子预先知道“贲其须”的意义,当然了再加上他的勇气。“贲其须”和“恩典感化”在中国文化中是很有价值的。根据我个人的经历,根据我的心理分析老师们的经历,我能够做的至少是告诉你们,与无意识的沟通需要有传统文明态度的伴随,不然的话,你最好还是将无意识留在西方。

 

 

 

Keynote Address:

The Significance of C.G. Jung and Chinese Culture

JohnBeebe

 

It seems to bethe tradition that pilgrims from the West who think that they have something toimpart land in Guangzhou.  I need only tomention the very first, Bodhidharma, who came in 527 A.D. But then there's alsothe legend, in this city, of the five gods, really the five Celestial Beings,that rode to the city on five goats each with an ear of grain in its mouth.Once the Celestial Beings had assured that the city of Guangzhou would have nomore famine by presenting the grain to the Cantonese, then they flew away andthe goats turned to stone.  Now, when Ifly away, the words that I have spoken to you today can be turned to stone, andwe can have a written paper, and then we shall have something that people canread and perhaps will go on tablets some day. But today we go live, and I want to tell you something about the goatsthat brought me here.

Those of you whoknow the Book of Changes may know Hexagram 34. In the 6th line, it talks abouta goat that butts its head up against a hedge, a bush, and he gets his hornsentangled in the bush, and then the book tells us, "The goat cannot goforward, and it cannot go backwards." And then the Book of Changes says,"But if one notes the difficulty, this brings good fortune." So Iwill note the difficulty of trying to engage with the problem of how to explainto you how Jung and Chinese culture really come together.

Now, Jung is thename now, of not just a man, but an historical figure. Others have recorded thehistory of Jung's engagement with Eastern thought. I would particularly mentionthe book Jung and Eastern Thought, byJohn J. Clarke, which I hope very soon can be translated and be made availableto China, because it is the best, most accurate story of the ideas which Jungconnected with not only Chinese culture, but also Indian culture and Japaneseculture. Much of Jung’s emphasis was on Chinese culture, with an interest inBuddha from the very beginning of his student days when he was readingSchopenhauer to the last year of his life, when he was reading Buddha'sdiscourses again. 

In the middle ofthis lifelong interest in Chinese thought, Jung talks about the Tao, in thebook Psychological Types, and about wu wei in his Commentary to The Secret of the Golden Flower. Aboveall, he makes sure that the Richard Wilhelm translation of the I Ching alsogets translated into English, and produced on the American book market where itbecomes an international bestseller, assuring that the entire West will becomeaware of the I Ching, which is exactly what has happened. I would saypersonally that Jung's Foreword to the IChing is my favorite of all of hiswritings. 

David Rosen, whowill speak to you later, has emphasized the importance of the concept of Tao inJung's entire life and thought, and I myself, in the book Integrity in Depth, have talked about the importance of te in the understanding of hispsychology; so that these two terms of the TaoTe Ching, are very much, to my mind, central in the understanding ofJungian psychology on an everyday basis. 

But what I wantto tell you today is not this intellectual history of which, I think, Jungianpsychology can be very proud, but rather to say how we actually approacheveryday problems of doing psychotherapy, how it actually lives in our work andlife, and therefore how Jung lives in our work and life.

Just as it isvery difficult to get a sense of what the great philosophical figures werelike, what Lao Tzu was like, what Confucius was like, above all what Buddha waslike, and we get a sense of what these people were like almost better bygetting closer to some of the people who have followed them and have incarnatedtheir spirits, so I would like to tell some stories that come from myexperiences with my own teachers, since both of the teachers that I'm going todescribe had personal contact with Jung and Jung's way of seeing things.  I believe that particularly Jung's connectionto Chinese thought very much influenced the way they approached the problem ofbeing doctors, and healers, and psychotherapists. 

Now, to become aJungian analyst, one has to undergo the experience of being in psychotherapywith a Jungian analyst.  One of my firstJungian analysts was a woman named Elizabeth Osterman.  When I came to her, I was a youngpsychiatrist, just finishing my residency training at Stanford University.  At that time, I was very impressed withmedicine, being a doctor, and with what I had learned to be a psychiatrist, andI was very interested in the power of medicine and psychiatric medicine tochange the human mind.  

Therefore, I wasvery interested in knowing how my analyst, Dr. Osterman, had approached theproblem of becoming a psychiatrist and a Jungian analyst.  And she related an interesting story tome.  She had originally trained to studyviruses; she was a microbiologist.  Andso she had found herself already a professional woman when she first felt aneed to go into Jungian psychotherapy for herself.  In fact, she had had a dream where there wasa woman lying on a bed who was very old and sick and tired, and when she hadthis dream she knew immediately that the woman was in herself and was in somedegree of trouble and that she would need to go to a psychotherapist to figureout what the trouble was. 

She had a verysuccessful analysis, and as part of the analysis she completed studies tobecome a medical doctor, and went forward with the idea of  becoming a psychiatrist.  So in our city she went to a greatpsychiatric institute, which is very notable in its architecture because it'sbuilt a little bit like a tower: it has a rather tall structure.  You could call this a pagoda of psychiatriclearning.  Remember this is already aformed adult woman who has had several years of Jungian analysis and she's justabout to start to learn to be a psychiatrist. The night before she goes the first time she had the following dream:

She is lookingat a building which has a tall tower, and at the top of the tower, right at therooftop, a man and a woman are wrestling. And they wrestle, and they wrestle, and they wrestle, and they wrestle,all day and all night, and they just go on wrestling and wrestling. 

Now it happenedthat when Elizabeth had this dream, she had the good fortune  that that day passing through San Franciscowas one of Jung's most famous colleagues, Dr. C.A. Meier, who wrote many books.  And so she told Dr. Meier her dream, and shesaid, "I was looking up at the psychiatric institute building, and therewas this man and woman wrestling on top of the roof all day and all nightlong."  And Dr. Meier said,"Ja, and they never come down." 

So Elizabeth hadto come down on her own.  In those daysin California where, as in every other place in the world, sooner or later onehas to have a license to practice any form of healing, one could get away withgoing to a psychiatric residency for as short as one year.  On the strength of that dream she went foronly one year and then got away, because she felt that it would threaten her asa woman and as a psychological person if in that place of great psychiatriclearning this problem of the male and the female opposites was going to bewrestled with so much up in the head, so high up, and so intellectually, andnever, never come down to the ground of being. 

Elizabeth nevertired of telling me and telling all of us in our Institute who knew her thatwhat Jung was talking about was Nature. I believe there's a very wonderful term for this in Chineseculture.  It is Earth.  You know, you have the three terms Heaven,Earth, and Man.  In thinking of thisdream of the male and female wrestling with each other so high off the ground,we have to think of their distance from the Earth. 

Now, we knowJung has talked a great deal about the Tao, and I think that one has tounderstand the Tao as the watercourse way that passes through the earth.  In Hexagram 2 of the I Ching, which is theEarth hexagram, we have the wonderful line describing the nature of Taoitself:  "Straight, square,great.  Without purpose, yet nothingremains unfurthered."  This seemsvery far away from the male and female opposites struggling on top of thetower.  Jung did not like Westernphilosophy when it got too much into an endless argument.  He felt it was better when it was Nature, orwhat he called natural philosophy.  Andthis is what Elizabeth again and again had to teach me as a young psychiatrist,when I would struggle with my dreams and try to understand what they meant andtry to bring all sorts of Western ideas to make sense of these images, and feltI had to tell my feelings what they were doing. She saw them as expressions of Nature struggling to get through to me.

I want tomention another revered teacher, Dr. Joseph Henderson.  When I came to work with Dr. Henderson, whofounded the Jung Institute of San Francisco, and was one of Jung's mostlong-standing and loyal followers, having known Jung as far back as 1929, I'mafraid that I projected onto him, as we say in Jungian psychology, the veryfigure that appeared to Richard Wilhelm in the dream that he had shortly beforehe undertook to translate the I Ching.  At that time, Richard Wilhelm was inTsingtao, and he dreamt that a beautiful old man appeared to him who said thathis name was Mountain Lao, and that he would teach Reverend Wilhelm the secretsof the mountain.  So when I first met Dr.Henderson I'm afraid I saw him too as Mountain Lao, and I said to him, "Itseems to me as if you've always been here."

Dr. Henderson isnot the usual American man -- he has a very English, the word we use in Jungianpsychology is persona; that is, he has a very formal way of presenting himselfthat almost seems like it belongs to a past time, maybe just a little bit likethe persona of another Anglicized American, T.S. Eliot.  Now, this is not a style that is popular inAmerica today. 

So when I firstcame to Dr. Henderson in that first hour with him, I looked at him and said,"What I like about you is that you have never cared about what otherpeople thought."  Dr. Hendersonsaid, "Well, I have always had an independent mind." And then hecleared his throat and tried to say something else, but his tongue got somehowtied up in his mouth, and he could not say what he wanted to say.  So he cleared his throat and tried to speakagain.  And his tongue got curled up inhis mouth and he could not speak again. I went right on talking, as if nothing had happened.  And when I had finished my next too manywords, and there was just a breathing space, Dr. Henderson looked at me andsaid, "The reason I became tongue-tied just now is that it really isn'ttrue.  I actually cared very much whatother people thought all my life, but I had to go away to school, to a boardingschool far from my home when I was young, and to protect myself I had todevelop a face that didn't show emotion, what we call in  English a poker face.  And I got rather too good at it." 

Now imagine thisas the beginning of a psychotherapy! Notice that Dr. Henderson did not hide behind the projection of MountainLao --eternal, the carrier of the wisdom of Heaven, beyond being touched --that I had placed upon him.  Notice alsothat he tried to, at the beginning, whenhe said, "Well, I have always had an independent mind."  But notice that his body would not let himget away with that.  And notice that henoticed that himself. 

The part of themind, for a Jungian analyst, that will not allow us to proceed if we're livingin a fiction is precisely what Jung referred to as the Tao.  The choice we make tohonor that, when it appears in us, is what I think we should call the te. And what was so impressive to me inthat first hour with Dr. Henderson was that he lived that relationship for allthat it was worth and did not care about the appearance of authority when hedid so.  This meant that if I was goingto have what in analysis is called a transference, that is a projection of thepossibility of development of the self (an archetypal transference is theJungian technical term), if I was going to have this, I was going to have tohave it on the basis of who Dr. Henderson really was, not on the basis of afantasy of some unreal person that he could never be. 

You see, I hadcome, as I think many people come, to psychotherapy, with the fantasy that mydepression and my anxiety -- what we call in the West my vulnerability -- wasgoing to go away as the result of analysis, the way that depression goes awayif one takes an antidepressant, or the way a headache goes away if one takes anaspirin.  When Dr. Henderson insistedthat however he looked from the outside, he, too, was just as vulnerable as Iwas, I suddenly realized that my vulnerability was me, and it would never goaway.   I believe that Dr. Hendersonlearned this from Dr. Jung.  And Ibelieved that partly Dr. Jung learned this from Lao Tzu. 

I think that Ishould now say something about the kind of therapy that takes place when onehas teachers like these.  While I wasworking with Dr. Osterman, there was some problem of the yin and the yangtaking place at the top of my head, there must have been that problem because Ihad frequent headaches in that relatively early period of my analysis. 

In those days,my mind was entirely identified with my strong intuition.  I loved to read Jungian psychology.  There's a wonderful literature in Jungianpsychology that tells the story of the myths and the archetypes.  And when one reads it from a certain point ofview, one can imagine that one has a golden key to all the mythologies of theworld, all of the religions of the world, in fact, all of the minds of theworld.  But all of this knowledge onlymade my head ache even more.  So theanswer was not to come from more study and learning.  Somewhere else there would have to be a signof the true place where the disturbance lay. 

I found myselfone night with a dream that seemed to help: I came into a room and there,sitting in a chair, was a Chinese woman. She was very plain and simple in her clothing, and the room itself wasalmost empty.  She had an unhappy look onher face.  Her husband was a gambler, andhe would spend all the money that they earned together in the laundry that theyran so that there was nothing to buy anything for the home.  That was the dream.

I've alreadytold you something about Elizabeth Osterman, and I don't think that you wouldimagine, even from the little that I've told you, that she would let me getaway very long without exploring very closely what that dream must besaying.  I gave her associations to thedream.  In San Francisco where I live,it's not uncommon to have laundries that are owned by Chinese people, and I hadsuch a laundry right on my street corner. The woman in my dream seemed to me very much the woman who ownedit.  So the woman in my dream was aparticular woman to whom I took my laundry, Peggy Woo. 

Peggy Woo wasdifferent from me in many ways. She was more introverted than I am.  She was also much more practical than I: shewas not a person of thought or intuition, she was a person who had a great dealof what Jung called sensation.  Sheworked very practically and effectively in her laundry.  This consciousness that she gives person toin my dream was a part of myself that I had not developed very much.  It is often the case that a part of oneselfthat a person has not developed will appear as a figure of the oppositesex.  Such a figure can also appear as aperson of another culture.  So sherepresented something that at that time was other than who I was.  And this other in myself didn't haveanything, and she was unhappy because she didn't have anything. 

Who, then washer husband, who was spending all his money on the gambling?  I had to admit that this was an interestingway of describing my own ego. 

Now, I did notgamble with money, but I gambled with energy.  I was by now a psychiatrist myself, and when I was seeing patients in anoffice doing what we call psychotherapy, I would get so excited with each newpossibility of each dream and each feeling my patients brought to me, that Iwould forget even to breathe.  No wonderat the end of the day I would have quite a headache from all the carbondioxide! Just as in life Peggy Woo would take care of my laundry, I was going tohave to take better care, in my office, of my body and what it was doing as Iwas sitting there with such excitement listening to the archetypal images of mypatients' dreams.  I was going to have tobreathe after someone told me a dream.  Iwas going to have to sigh, and move my body, and find some place for me also,as a body, as a person, as a physical being, in the room.

And as I beganto give energy to the body in myself, I began to discover that my body wasfeeling things that my patients could not say to me in words.  So I learned more about the feelings of mypatients listening with my body than I did running after all the meanings ofthe archetypal symbols in their dreams.  Now, she -- Peggy Woo, the woman in my dream -- must have liked this, becauseshe came up in another dream.  Now shewas happier, her husband was taking her out for ice cream! 

When we readabout the anima in Jungian psychology (this is another technical word, a Latinword, for soul) we learn that the anima draws us into a part of ourselves wemight not want to even be seen with in public. She lives inside as an other.  Andwe have a choice whether to take responsibility for that other or not.  If we develop a relationship or a connectionto that other inside of ourselves, then for the first time what I call theintegrity of the personality appears. This is the practical basis for the virtue of the personality, or whatVictor Mair translating the traditional word for virtue in Chinese, te, choseto translate as integrity.  Andyou see the word he used in translation is the word I have chosen to use –herein China we can say it is the te ofthe personality. 

So the dreamstell us whether or not we are in a state of Tao.  But what we do about the dream once we've had it refers to our te. Now, this could not happen if there was no ground to ourpersonalities.  Jung called this ground“the reality of the psyche.”  Jung did notdiscover the power of the dream.  Jungwas one of four great depth psychologists who arose after Schopenhauer andNietzsche had opened up for philosophy the feeling that there was somethingmore than reason moving within us. 

Of these four,whom you can read about in Henri Ellenberger’s The Discovery of the Unconscious, Pierre Janet was the first tospeak of subconscious ideas, and it was he that stressed that independence, theautonomy, of the psyche.  This idea meansthat the unconscious has a will of its own. Elizabeth Osterman's dream, Dr. Henderson's becoming tongue-tied, andthe strength of the symptom of my headache all are testament of the independentforce of the unconscious. 

Sigmund Freudwas the first to emphasize how creative the unconscious is.  He showed how the unconscious is like a greatpoet.  “It's so interesting,” said awoman friend of mine who had a Jungian analysis back in the 1940's and wasstill writing her dreams down after she brushed her teeth every morning in the1970's, “that the unconscious would think of that way of putting it, would usethose words for saying, that image for describing my situation.”  Freud's book The Interpretation of Dreams shows the poetics of the unconscious,all the different ways in which the unconscious fills the dream with the sameskill of a Shakespeare or a Li Po.  

       AlfredAdler showed us that everything that we have in the psyche--every feeling thatcomes, every dream--has a purpose; is trying to accomplish something for us; istrying to create something--perhaps a fiction by which we can live, perhaps atruth that we need to see. 

Jung knew thesethree other pioneers personally and learned a great deal from them.  He taught us that the psyche is even moreautonomous than Janet thought, that it's even more creative than Freud thought,and that it has much more purpose than Adler thought.  For its purpose is actually to move us alongthe path of life and to develop us into fully developed, flowering selves.  So Jung taught us much about what he called"the peculiar intelligence of the background."  But he went further than Janet or Freud orAdler in saying that the psyche was also real. Janet would sometimes say in French that the psyche, the unconscious,was just a façon de parler—just a wayof speaking.  Freud and Adler believedthat the psyche was largely trying to defend us from a reality we neversee.  But Jung felt the psyche wasreal. 

So if the maleand female opposites are having their wrestling match on top of the psychiatrybuilding, that's really where theyare, on top of that building.  If thewoman in my dream doesn't have anything, she really doesn't have anything. And therefore until we address that state of affairs, we can'tunderstand the latest argument about whether the patient at the psychiatricinstitute should get psychotherapy or medication, and we can't solve theproblem of my headache.   I find itwonderful that it was a Chinese woman in my dream who connected me to what Jungmeant by the reality of the psyche.  I'msure that it’s in trying to get to know her better and to understand what sheneeds, that I have given so much time to the study of Chinese philosophy.  Above all I have studied the book the I Ching. There, I think, we already have pictures of the archetypes that areright on the ground where we can all see them. What the 64 hexagrams in the IChing show us are basic situations presented by the Tao to us in verypersonal ways.  Every person who comes toa psychotherapist is in some such situation. 

       Jungunderstood that the reality presented by the I Ching and the reality presented by the Western person's dream isthe same reality.   I had a very vividexperience of this when I finished my work with Dr. Osterman and was going onto do further work with Dr. Henderson. I've told you what happened during the first hour with Dr. Henderson,but I didn't tell you what happened the day and the night before. 

First there wasa dream, which came very shortly after Dr. Osterman suggested that I had workedlong enough with the mother and that I now needed to work with the father.  In my dream I was already going to my firstappointment with Dr. Henderson, and there, sitting in the waiting room, lookingat me with a slightly annoyed look, was a woman that I used to take to dancesat school when I was a boy of about fifteen. We had gone on to college, and our lives had drifted apart; so that youcould say that she was a kind of rejected other.  And now, there she was, looking back at menow as an adult woman, with a suspicious look on her face -- who was I now?   I will say her first name.  Her first name--in English--is Grace.  I also, as the day approached to see Dr.Henderson, decided to consult the I Chingto see what it would say about my analysis with him, what it thought I shouldbe thinking about as I started analysis with him.  Using the method of coin  consultation, developed in the Han dynasty, Icast the I Ching, and I got the hexagram 22, which—again in English--isGrace.  I was amazed by this coincidence.

Then, the nightbefore this first session, going to see Dr. Henderson, who as you know I wasregarding as Mountain Lao, I had a dream that I was going into a library thatwas just about to close.  In that libraryI found a shelf on which was all the knowledge of Jungian psychology –all of iton that one shelf.   But in my greed foreven more psychological knowledge I looked around some other parts of thelibrary, and then I couldn't find my way back to the shelf.  At last, just as the library was about toclose, I found the shelf again.  Therewas no time to choose carefully, I had to just pull a book off the shelf asfast as possible because the bell was ringing. And it was a thin little book.  Atfirst I was disappointed when I saw its title. It said, English Manners

I took thisdream, of course, to Dr. Henderson, and he said, "It fits, it fits.  Jung had in his practice one of theprincesses of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, one of the Hohenzollern family.  And Jung said she made an excellent analyticpatient because she had such good manners, by which Jung meant, not that shetreated him well --not that she behaved well toward Jung -- but that she metthe contents of the unconscious with just the right attitude andmanners." 

Now, it's veryinteresting how often in the history of all cultures very wise people sometimeshave to be advised about their superficial manners. Jung notes in his Forewordto the I Ching that Confucius onceconsulted the I Ching and got theonly answer that ever annoyed him when he worked with this book. It washexagram 22, Grace, and the line he got was, "Lends grace to the beard onhis chin." It is said that Confucius thought this was too trivial a matterfor the I Ching to take up.

But I think myown unconscious was telling me something when I got the book on English mannersrather than all of the knowledge of Jungian psychology. Because there is no usediscovering these deeper layers of the unconscious such as the anima if they'reonly going to make us more ruthless, more critical, and more violent in ourdealings with each other. If even your own wisest sage, Confucius, needed to bewarned of the value of grace—and certainly, with his encouragement, grace andritual have been very valuable to Chinese culture—the least I can do, out of myown experience and out of the experience of my analytic teachers, is to tellyou that connecting to the unconscious has to be accompanied by a traditionallycivilized attitude.  Otherwise, you hadbetter leave the unconscious with the West!

 

——摘自第一届心理分析与中国文化国际论坛文集:《灵性:分析与体验》

 

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