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荣格与中国,对话的继续《第二届》

发布人:申荷永       2013-01-28 字体:

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摘要:

这是一个基于个人经历与体验的报告,以“荣格与中国:对话的继续”为题目。*

1994年夏天,默瑞·斯丹(Murray Stein)主席和夫人简·斯丹(Jan Stein),当时的国际分析心理学会(IAAP)主席托马斯·科茨(Thomas Kirsch)博士和其夫人,美国旧金山荣格研究院院长珍·科茨博士等,代表国际分析心理学会来中国访问。在华南师范大学,托马斯·科茨博士做了“荣格与道”的报告,实际上那也是一次“荣格与中国”的对话。正如默瑞·斯丹主席所描述的:“我们以国际分析心理学会正式代表的身份来到中国。我们很想知道,在这个已经向世界开放的辽阔的文明古国,我们将会发现什么?我们意识到,如果这次我们与所要会见的中国学者之间的接触进展顺利的话,那么这将成为荣格心理学与中国学术界进行交往的一个历史事件。”[1]

当时作为“对话”的主题之一,是关于对荣格的“自性”(Self)的理解与翻译。几个星期之后,默瑞·斯丹一行返回美国,但是这“对话”依然通过书信在继续。默瑞·斯丹在其“关于国际分析心理学会访问中国的报告”中,援引了我写给他的信中关于“自性”的内容:“……然而,就我自己的体验而言,我更愿意用‘自性’来翻译荣格的‘Self’。自性在佛学经典中具有‘佛法之心’和‘第一真理’,也即一切事物的根源的含义;同时,就我的心理学理论(psychology of heart)而言,在自性之“性”的汉字中,包含着“心”与“生”的结合,给人以与生俱来的最原始的心理本质的意象。”[2]

默瑞·斯丹还曾这样来描述他们在1994年的那次访问:“和申荷永博士及其同事们进行了三个多小时的研讨之后,华南师范大学在他们校园里为我们举行了招待宴会。这真是一次令人难忘的盛宴,所有的食物皆味道鲜美,我从未在任何其它大学吃过这么好的食物。后来也表明,它确实是我们中国之行中饮食的高峰体验。”[3] 这使我想起老子的章句:圣人之道,“虚其心、实其腹……”[4] 那便是当时对话的一种生动意象。

 

1996年春天,当我作为福布莱特学者在美国讲授“中国文化心理学”的时候,默瑞·斯丹邀请我和撰写了《荣格之道》的作者戴维·罗森(David Rosen)一起,到芝加哥荣格心理分析研究院做关于“荣格与中国”的对话研讨会。其间,与会者提出了关于《金花的秘密》一书的翻译与理解的问题,尤其是涉及到克莱瑞(Thomas Cleary)的新译本,以及他对于卫礼贤的翻译和荣格评论的批评。

我本人是更喜欢卫礼贤的翻译。克莱瑞的译本与卫礼贤的译本所根据的中文原版本有不同,所以难免会有翻译的差异。卫礼贤是将道家的内丹典籍:《太乙金华密旨》,和带有佛家修炼色彩的《慧命经》放在了一起,合称为:《金花的秘密:关于生命的中国书》(The Secret of the Golden Flower: a Chinese Book of Life)。而且,更为重要的是,卫礼贤是侧重于对文字背后的理解和意义的翻译。正如荣格对卫礼贤的评价,“他把东方的精神财富翻译成了西方的意义。”[5] 荣格还说过,“卫礼贤把“道”这一核心概念翻译成意义,把意义翻译成生活,也就是实现道……”[6] 这也正是对经典的真正理解,所有典籍翻译背后的真正意义。

实际上,我个人的真正的荣格心理学学习,正是从《金花的秘密》开始的。那是一次特殊的“对话”。1993年的秋天,我在美国南伊利诺伊大学附近的爱德华镇,曾有三个月的自我分析,当时只读了一本书,就是《金花的秘密》。我曾在“日记”中记下了阅读的体会:“……读完此书,尚未发现关于‘金花’的秘密,但是,却发现了荣格心理学的秘密,那就是其与中国文化的内在联系。仿佛之间,似乎找到了打开荣格心理学之门的一把钥匙。”而这象征性的钥匙,也一直作为梦中的意象,继续着某种内在的对话。

读完《金花的秘密》不久,我乘火车从美国中部的圣路易斯城赶往洛杉矶,在火车上做了这样一个梦:

 

梦中我面前放着一张桌子,我坐在那里,不经意地伸展手臂和身体的时侯,双手抱住了自己的头,恍惚之间,似乎觉得把头扭得松动了一些……接着,扭得再松动一些的时侯,竟然把头拔了下来,放在了桌子上。我端望着那头好一会,看得很清楚,是我的头。然后,似乎是想证实一下或什么,我把那头放回到脖子上,用手摸着脖子与头的接触缝隙,感觉还好……

后来,我重新把头从脖子上取下,再放到桌子上,再度端详着它……不知道由于什么缘故我要暂时离开一下,我对站在我身后的中年妇女说,帮我照看一下,这是我的头,我一会就回来。

 

我有几位荣格心理分析家朋友曾从不同的角度,热情地为我分析过这个梦。但对于这梦的个人理解,则是受庄子“心斋”的启发:“若一志,无听之以耳而听之以心,无听之以心而听之以气。听止于耳,心止于符。气也者,虚而待物者也。唯道集虚。虚者,心斋也。”[7]我把此梦称之为“心与头”的对话,那也是我的“心理学心要”(Psychologyof Heart)的开始。

实际上,这也是重复了荣格的经历与故事。1924年,49岁的荣格重访美国,在新墨西哥州的印第安人村落(the Taospueblos in New Mexico),与山湖(Mountain Lake)酋长成为知心的朋友。荣格曾问山湖,为什么他认为白人都是疯子。山湖回答,是因为“他们说他们是用头来思想的。”对此荣格更显困惑,他再问山湖,不用头能用什么呢,那么你又是用什么来思想的呢?山湖用手指着自己的心说,我们在这里思想。

荣格说:“我顿时陷入了一阵长时间的沉思……山湖的话犹如醒钟的鸣响,呈现出了一个我们所看不到的事实。一种不可名状却又倍加熟悉的感觉缓缓从内心涌现。”[8] 于是,这也是生动的“头与心”的对话。

实际上,这“荣格与中国”的“对话”,正是从荣格本人那里开始的。在其自传《回忆·梦·思考》的第一章中,荣格讲述了他自己童年的一个故事:

“在墙边的斜坡上,有一块凸起的石头,那是我的石头。当我独自一人的时侯,我经常坐在那石头上,进行这样一种想象性的游戏:‘我正坐在石头上,这石头在我的下面。’但是这石头同样也能说‘我’,同样也能这样想:‘我正躺在这斜坡上,他正坐在我的上面。’于是就有了这样的问题:‘我是那个正坐在石头上的人呢,还是那块被他所坐着的石头呢?’这个问题总使我感到茫然,于是我也就站起来,想着弄清楚现在到底谁是谁。答案总是模糊的,一种好奇梦幻般的黑暗感伴随着我的疑虑。但有一点是无可怀疑的,那就是这块石头与我有着某种神秘的关系。我可以在上面坐上几个小时,幻想着它给我的谜一般的向往。”[9]

这也是生动的庄子梦蝶的物化体验:“昔者庄周梦为蝴蝶,栩栩然蝴蝶也,自喻适志与?不知周也。俄然觉,则蘧蘧然周也,不知周之梦为蝴蝶与,蝴蝶之梦为周与?周与蝴蝶,则必有分矣,此之谓物化。”[10] 中国有句古话,把这种超时空的交流与沟通称之为“神交”,那么正可以形容荣格与中国的缘分。

大家都知道荣格绘制曼荼罗的经历及其心性体验。他在其传记中曾这样说,“我是事后才逐渐地发现,什么才是真正的曼荼罗。”荣格引用歌德《浮士德》中的话说:“‘成形、变形、永恒的心灵的永恒的创造。’而这便是自性即人格的完整性。”[11] 于是,对于荣格来说,他的曼荼罗,也就是深层自我的表现与反映。这种表现与反映,所带给荣格的,就是其对于自性化道路(The process of individuation)的领悟。

荣格在其自传中说,“几年之后(1927年),我由于做了一个梦而使我对有关这个中心及自性的想法得到了确信。我可以用我称之为‘永恒之窗’的一幅曼茶罗来表示其本质性的理解。这幅画后来印在了《金花的秘密》一书里。一年之后,我又画了一幅同样的曼茶罗,在此画的中央处则是一个‘金色的城堡’。这幅曼荼罗画完后,我问自己道:‘为什么这么象中国画?’我对于其形式和色彩的中国感觉印象深刻,尽管其外观上并没有任何中国画的东西。但是我却深感它与中国的联系。于是,接着就发生了奇妙的巧合,我收到卫礼贤寄来的一封信,信中附有一部论述道家炼丹术的书稿,标题也正是《金花的秘密》。他还要求我就此写一篇评论文章。我即刻如饥似渴地来阅读这书稿。因为书中所述对我关于曼荼罗以及自性作为中心的想法,给予了我做梦也不曾想到过的证实。这便是打破了我孤独的第一件事。我慢慢感受到了一种共鸣,我终于可以与某件事和某个人建立起联系了。”[12] 荣格在其自传中明确的表白,是卫礼贤以及卫礼贤所带来的中国影响,帮他找到了重返这个世界的归路。

为了记念这一特殊的富有意义的巧合事件,荣格在其所画的留给他深深的中国印象的曼荼罗的背后,写下了这样一行文字:“1928年,当我在绘制这幅曼荼罗,表现那金色古堡建筑的时侯,卫礼贤从法兰克福给我寄来了这关于黄色城堡,不朽身躯之源的古老的中国文献。”[13] 荣格称其为“共时性”,包括他与卫礼贤的相遇,那是他与中国的对话也是缘分。

荣格曾学习过汉语,深受汉字中丰富意象的吸引,称其为“可读的原型”。他也在其生命的特殊时刻,呈现其所学习的汉语的意义。据汉德森(Joe Henderson)博士讲述,1958年他最后一次看望荣格的时侯,荣格带他去花园,在一棵从中国进口的“银杏树”下(是苏黎世研究院的学生送给荣格的礼物),安放着荣格为托妮·沃尔夫(Toni Wolf)所刻的纪念碑。在一块不是很大的石头上刻着四行汉字。荣格告诉汉德森汉字是从上往下阅读的,这四行字写的是:

托妮

莲花

修女

神秘

[14]

我们都知道托妮对于荣格的意义,她呼应了其内在的阿尼玛,也是其终身的友伴与爱人。这也是荣格理解与使用汉字的记录。

根据劳伦斯·冯·波斯特(Laurens van der Post)的回忆,他在荣格去世前不久还有与荣格的一次长谈,荣格直到晚年都仍然在石头中寻求某种思念与寄托。在他为爱玛·荣格刻的石碑上,使用的仍然是汉字:“她是我房屋的基石”。[15]

荣格在失去托妮和爱玛之后,从未能从伤痛之中康复。善解父意的儿子弗兰兹为父亲找来石头,那似乎是唯一能帮他疗伤的工具。据说,荣格所刻的最后一块石头,有一个中国老人的头像,两边有银杏树的枝叶,上面刻的汉子是:“天人合一”。[16]

 

我们可以从荣格的“斐乐蒙”(Philemon)身上看到那中国老人的影子。戴维·罗森在其《荣格之道》中,称斐乐蒙是“荣格内在的道家师傅。”并且就自己的理解求教于玛莉·路易·冯·弗兰兹(Marie Louis von Franz)和梅尔(C.A. Meier),分别问他们两人一个十分特别的问题“荣格是道家吗?”冯·弗兰兹肯定地回答:“是的,荣格崇尚道家,并且身体力行于道家哲学的生活方式。”对此梅尔也表示赞同,他说,“是的,荣格是一位道家。现在,人们并没有认识到荣格的对立统一性心理学从其本质上说与道家思想是一致的。人们想把荣格变成他本来并不是那样的存在。他扎根于自然及其对立与统一之中。然而,对于道家,他是如此的虔诚,如此的神往,荣格作为道家是再清楚不过了。” [17]

荣格说,正是斐乐蒙教给了他如何理解心理的真实性。“事实上,正是斐乐蒙传达给我了许多富有启迪的思想。”[18] 荣格曾经形容说,“那时,斐乐蒙对我来说是非常真实的,似乎具有生动的人格主体。我也常与他在花园散步……”[19] 实际上,斐乐蒙也正是荣格生动的梦中意象,那是一种心理的真实性,一种心性的对话,心神的交往。

1999年的深秋,当我在苏黎世荣格研究院进行了三个月的心理分析研习之后,第一次也是至今唯一的一次梦到了荣格。

 

梦是从我住的北塞塔(Bethesta)的山坡上开始的,我看到约翰·比贝(John Beebe)1从远处走来,身上穿着我的大衣。他告诉我戴维·罗森(David Rosen)2来到了苏黎世,我可以去看看他。

我与戴维·罗森在旅馆里,一起谈论荣格和心理分析,谈到很晚,感觉有些疲劳……次日醒来,我告诉戴维,我梦到了荣格。想到正是在苏黎世,我就想让戴维带我去看望荣格。戴维告诉我,荣格是很有名的,很难找到机会去看他。我说戴维,你不是很有名的荣格心理分析家吗,还写了《荣格之道》的书,你帮我联系嘛。戴维又说,实际上荣格很老了,老的说话都不清楚了,去了也没有用的。但我仍然是鼓动戴维帮我联系,至少是打电话过去试试运气。无奈之下戴维拨打了电话……过了一会他高兴地对我说,你有运气,荣格同意见我们。

于是,我们一起去了“波林根”(Bollingen)3。石头的建筑,石头的墙壁,进去里面也是圆形的石壁……能够让人真切地感觉到波林根的气氛(尽管在这梦之前我并没有到过波林根)。荣格坐在那里,我面对他坐着,戴维在我的旁边。荣格谈了很多与中国有关的事情,他看上去60岁左右的样子,十分健谈。我看了戴维一眼,意思是想说,你看,荣格并不老嘛。过了一会,我又看了戴维一眼,是想让他拍一张照片。

我们一起谈了很久,有人过来敲门,告诉荣格说他的另外一个约会的时间到了。荣格站起来,让我跟他去他的书房。到了书房,荣格打开书桌后面的墙柜,在墙柜的左侧挂着几把长长的黑色的钥匙。他指着其中一把说,那是地下室的钥匙;他不能陪我去地下室了,我可以用这钥匙自己去。

我看着墙柜问荣格,其它的钥匙有什么用。荣格说,什么用也没有。大概是荣格看我似乎没有听明白,便解释说,只有他告诉我的那把钥匙有用,是真的;其它的钥匙是作为“伪装”来保护这把真钥匙的。我说他们看上去完全一模一样的啊。荣格说,你去摸一下。我一只脚踏在荣格的书桌上,用手逐一去触摸那些挂在墙柜里面的钥匙,是感觉到了其中的不同。

……

 

这梦很长。我的心理分析家亚考毕(Mario Jacoby)曾用心地帮我分析过这个梦。做了这个梦数周之后,默瑞·斯丹途径苏黎世,我们一起吃午饭的时侯,又谈起了这个梦。默瑞问我有没有去过波林根,我说没有。于是,默瑞即刻给荣格的孙子尤里希(Ulirich Hoerni)打了电话,尤里希很快就过来了,我们一起开车去了波林根。

从苏黎世开车到波林根需要1个小时左右的时间,那天正下着雪。到了波林根,尤里希开了外面的大门,拿着一大串钥匙,去开塔楼的门。进塔楼的门上有上、中、下三把锁。尤里希打开了上面的和下面的,却怎么也打不开中间的。大概是想到我和默瑞等在外面的寒冷,尤里希不好意思的自言自语地说,我总是弄不清这么一大串钥匙。我走过去看了一下,说你试试这把;尤里希试了一下,门果然开启了。他开玩笑地说我,你怎么熟悉我们家的钥匙。到了这个时侯,我都还没有告诉尤里希我做过的梦。

进了塔楼,转进“客厅”,实际上也是厨房,迎面的石壁上,悬挂着与我梦中一模一样的几把黑色的,长长的钥匙。我走过去,用手逐一拨动它们,轻轻地碰触在石壁上,发出一阵悠扬而美妙的响声……

在荣格波林根的书房,有一幅荣格绘制的“斐乐蒙”画像。画中的斐乐蒙,左手高高地举起,紧握着一把钥匙,正是与我梦中一模一样的钥匙。在斐乐蒙的右手,则握着一串完全一样的另外几把钥匙。

这不是梦,而是真实的经历。默瑞·斯丹现在在场,这是我们的一起的经历。他是可以做见证的。(这时,坐在会议最前排的默瑞激动地站了起来,说那是如此生动深刻而永远不会忘怀的经历。)

当尤里希拿出波林根的“访问者留言”要我签名的时侯,我用英文写了“I am following my dream to Bollingen”(跟着我的梦来到波林根)。但尤里希提醒我说,“用中文,用中文!”于是,我用汉字写了“来波林根寻梦”。

 

于是,这“对话”可以有很多的形式,甚至可以在梦中。这便是我的报告,基于个人的体验:荣格与中国:对话的继续……这对话是从荣格开始的,这对话有不同的形式,这对话可以超越时空,这对话携带着我们的心与灵性,而我们仍然继续着这“对话”……

谢谢大家!

 

 

 

 



* 在报告之前,我想借此机会,对默瑞·斯丹(Murray Stein)主席,对国际分析心理学会(IAAP), 以及对瑞士苏黎世和美国旧金山荣格研究院,对颜泽贤校长以及华南师范大学;对支持我完成这多年心理分析训练的朋友,对我的妻子高岚,对我的心理分析家亚考毕(Mario Jacoby)、鲁西克(Louis Vuksinick)、伯尼克(Robert Bosnak),我的实习指导克瑞思汀·汉吉尼亚(Christine Henjnian), 以及我的特殊心理分析老师柯莎丽(Sally Kaufmann),表示衷心地感谢!

 

1 约翰·比贝,资深的荣格心理分析家,美国旧金山荣格研究院院长。《德:深度整合》的作者。

2 戴维·罗森,美国德州A&M大学荣格教授,《荣格之道》的作者。

3 波林根,荣格晚年隐居的地方。



[1] Murray Stein. Report on an IAAP Visit to China, IAAP Newsletter,15, 1995.

[2] 同上。

[3] 同上。

[4] 《老子》第三章。

[5] C.G. Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: AChinese Book of Life. Causeway Books, New York. 1975. P.147.

[6] 同上。

[7]《庄子·人间世》

[8] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P. 248.

[9] 同上,第20页。

[10] 《庄子·齐物论》

[11] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. PP. 195-196.

[12] 同上,第197页。

[13] 同上。

[14] Joseph L. Henderson, Foreword to: A Memoir of Toni Wolff, by IreneChampernowne, C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1980.

[15] Laurens van der Post, Jung and the Story of Our Time. Random House,New York 1975. p.177

[16] David Rosen. The Dao of Jung. Penguin Putnam, New York 1996.pp.151-152.

[17] David Rosen. The Dao of Jung. Penguin Putnam, New York 1996.Preface.

[18] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P.184.

[19] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P.183.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.G. Jung and China, A continued Dialogue

Heyong Shen1

Translate by Michael Yen2

 

This presentation is basedon personal experiences, with the title of: “Jung and China: A ContinuedDialogue”.3

In the summer of 1994, MurrayStein and Jan Stein, Thomas Kirsch, the president of IAAP then, and JeanKirsch, the president of the San Francisco C.G. Jung Institute then, visitedChina on behalf of IAAP. At the reception seminar, Dr. Thomas Kirsch gave his presentationon “Jung and Dao” at the South China Normal University. In fact, that’s exactlya dialogue between Jung and China. Just as Dr. Murray Stein described in hisReport on an IAAP visit to China: “…we came to China as representatives of IAAP,curious as to what we would find in this vast and ancient civilization which isjust now once again opening somewhat to the West and aware that this would bean historic event if the contact between Jungian psychology and the Chinese wewere to meet turned out to be auspicious.”[1]

A point of considerablediscussion revolved around how to understand and translate the Jung’s term “Self”into Chinese. Several weeks later, when Murray Stein and Tom Kirsch returnedback the United States, the dialogue still continued through our letters.Murray quoted one of my letters referred to the discussion of the translationof the Jung’s Self in his Report on an IAAP Visit to China: “I prefer to use ZiXing (self nature), to translate Jung’s Self. Zi Xing originally is a specialterm of Buddhism and mainly means a) the heart of ‘fa’, the power of buddha; b)the first truth, the cause of everything. But in my theory about the psychologyof Heart, Zi Xing is better than Zi Wo, Zi Ji and Zi Schen for Jung’s theory.Since (Zi) Xing is ‘heart’ and ‘life’ together, it means the originalpsychological image which we carried from the very beginning and the psychologicalmeaning of our life.”[2]

Dr. Murray Stein ended hisdescription of the “dialogue” with the following sentence: “after our threehours meeting with Dr. Shen and his colleagues, the psychology departmenttreated us to a banquet in their quarters at the university. Unlike otheruniversity food I have eaten before, this was truly a feast to be savoured andremembered. It turned out to be one of our culinary peak experiences in China.”[3] It reminded me of what Lao Tzu, the great Taoistsaid in his book: following the Way of the sagas, one should “emptying hisheart and filling his bellies.”[4] That’san image just fit the dialogue then.

In the Spring of 1996,when I taught the Chinese Cultural Psychology in the United States as aFulbright scholar, Dr. Murray Stein invited me and Dr. David Rosen, who wrotethe book of The Dao of Jung, to make a “dialogue of Jung and China” at theChicago C.G. Jung Institute.

How to understand thebook: The Secret of the Golden Flower, became one of the most interesting topicduring the dialogue between us and with the audience. Since some one broughtthe issue of Thomas Cleary’s new translation and his critique to Wilhelm’stranslation and Jung’s commentaries.

I like the Wilhelm’stranslation. There are several different versions of the original Chinese text:Tai-Yi-Jin-Hua-Mi-Zhi. The version that Wilhelm translated is different fromCleary’s. And in his version of translation Wilhelm combined theTai-Yi-Jin-Hua-Mi-Zhi and the Hui Ming Ching which has a style of Buddhismpractice. And the combination of the two books is given one title as The Secretof the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life. What Wilhelm did a most importantwork is to get the meaning from the original text, and translate the meaninginto life. Just as C.G. Jung said in his In Memory of Richard Wilhelm: “We mustcontinue Wilhelm’ work of translation in a wider sense if we wish to showourselves worthy pupils of the master. Just as he translated the spiritualtreasure of the East into European meaning, we should translate this meaninginto life.” Jung continued: “Wilhelm translated the central concept of Tao byMeaning. To translate Meaning into life, that is, to realize Tao, would be thetask of the pupil.”[5] That is the trueunderstanding of the classical text, and the real meaning behind thetranslation.

Actually, my real study ofJungian psychology started with the Secret of the Golden Flower. That’s aspecial dialogue beyond the time and space. In the Autumn of 1993, my firsttime to visit the United States, I spent the Autumn at the Edwardsville whereclose to the campus of the Southern Illinois University. I did three months “self-analysis”,and read only one book: The Secret of the Golden Flower. After read the book Isaid to myself, I didn’t find the secret of the golden flower, but I did find asecret of Jungian psychology. That’s the inner connection with Chinese culture.It seemed that I got a key for entering the door of Jungian psychology. And thesymbol of the key had later continued the inner dialogue as a dream image.

Three months later, I tooka train from St. Louis to Los Angels. I got a dream on the train, which Icalled a dialogue between “head and heart”:

 

In the dream, I sat besidea table. I stretched out my arms like to make a yawn, and hold my head withhands. Like in a state of trance, I felt that my head became flexible, I turnedmy head left and right, and finally pulled out my head and placed it on thetable. I looked at the head for a while. I could see very clearly, very familiarly,that’s my head. Then I put the head back to my neck, like tried to provesomething, and touched the neck, felt it's good connected again.

Then I pulled out my headand placed it on the table again, looked at it and had some conversation withit. For some reason, I had to leave for a while. I said to a middle aged woman whostood behind me: please take care of it for a while, it’s my head. I would beback soon.

 

It’s quite a long dream,but the most striking point is that I can see my head without the eyes. Mypersonal understanding of the dream was edified by Chuang Tzu’s story of the “fastingof heart”: “…do not listen with your ears, but with your heart; do notcomprehend with your heart, but with your vital energy (Qi). Your ears can onlyhear and your heart can only comprehend. But the vital energy is an emptinessthat is responsive to anything. The mighty Tao can only gather in an emptiness andthat emptiness is the fasting of the heart.”[6]I called this dream as a dialogue between heart and head. It’s the beginning ofmy theory of the psychology of heart.

 

Actually, the dialoguebetween head and heart, is also a true experience of C.G. Jung. In 1924, at theage of 49, Jung traveled to America, where he visited the Taos pueblos in NewMexico. He befriended the chief of the Taos Pueblo Indians, Mountain Lake.

Jung asked Mountain Lakewhy he thought the whites were all mad. “They say that they think with theirheads,” he replied. Jung said, “Why of course,” and asked him in surprise. “Whatdo you think with?” Mountain Lake replied: “We think here.” And he indicatedhis heart.

“I felt into a longmeditation” Jung said, “This Indian had struck our vulnerable spot, unveiled atruth to which we are blind. I felt rising within me like a shapeless mistsomething unknown and yet deeply familiar.” “… Something else that OchwiayBiano said to me struck in my mind. It seems to me so intimately connected withthe peculiar atmosphere of our interview …”[7]That’s also a vivid dialogue of the head and heart.

 

In fact, the dialogue ofJung and China started from C.G. Jung himself. In the first chapter of theMemories, Dreams, Reflections, Jung told us the story of his childhood: “ …infront of this wall was a slope in which was embedded a stone that jutted out--- my stone. Often, when I was alone, I sat down on this stone, and then beganan imaginary game that went something like this: ‘I am sitting on top of thisstone and it is underneath.’ But the stone also could say ‘I’ and think: ‘I amlying here on this slope and he is sitting on top of me.’ The question thenarose: ‘Am I the one who is sitting on the stone, or am I the stone on which heis sitting?’ This question always perplexed me, and I would stand up, wonderingwho was what now. The answer remained totally unclear, and my uncertainty wasaccompanied by a feeling of curious and fascinating darkness. But there was nodoubt whatsoever that this stone stood in some secret relationship to me. Icould sit on it for hours, fascinated by the puzzle it set me.”[8]

Jung’s experience issimilar to a vivid image of Chuang Tzu’s butterfly dreaming: “I, by the name ofChuang Chou, once dreamed that I was a butterfly, a butterfly flutteringhappily here and there. I was so pleased that I forgot that I was Chuang Chou.When I suddenly woke up, I was astonished to find that I was as a matter offact Chuang Chou. Did Chuang Chou dream of the butterfly or did the butterflydream of Chuang Chou?”[9] Chuang Tzucalled his dream experience as “transformation”. That’s the end of the secondchapter of Chuang Tzu: On the Uniformity of All Things, the most importantfoundation of his Taoist philosophy. There is an old Chinese saying: spiritualcommunication can be beyond time and space. That just fit the synchronicrelationship between Jung and China.

 

As we all know the Mandaladrawn by Jung. He said that “I no longer know how many mandalas I drew at thistime. There were a great many. Only gradually did I discover what the mandalareally is: ‘Formation, Transformation. Eternal Mind’s eternal recreation.’ Andthat is the Self, the wholeness of the personality, which if all goes well isharmonious, but which cannot tolerate self-deception”.[10]

So, to Jung, the mandalais the manifestation of his Self. Through it Jung got his realization of theprocess of individuation.

Some years later in 1927,Jung represented his understanding of the Self by mandala again, with a goldencastle in the center, “when it was finished, I asked myself, ‘Why is this soChinese?’” Jung answered himself. “I was impressed by the form and choice ofcolors, which seemed to me Chinese, although there was nothing outwardlyChinese about it.” Jung said. “Yet that was how it affected me. It was astrange coincidence that shortly afterward I received a letter from RichardWilhelm enclosing the manuscript of a Taoist-alchemical treatise entitled TheSecret of the Golden Flower, with a request that I write a commentary on it. Idevoured the manuscript at once, for the text gave me undreamed-of confirmationof my ideas about the mandala and the circumambulation of the center. That wasthe first event which broke through my isolation. I became aware of anaffinity; I could establish ties with something and someone.”[11]

Jung expressed veryclearly in his autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflection, that it wasWilhelm, with the influence of Chinese culture, that helped him to find the wayto return to this world.

In remembrance of thiscoincidence, this “synchronicity,”Jung wrote underneath the picture which hadmade so Chinese an impression upon him: “In 1928, when I was painting thispicture, showing the golden, well-fortified castle, Richard Wilhelm in Frankfortsent me the thousand-year-old Chinese text on the yellow castle, the germ ofthe immortal body.”[12] Jung called thatas the “synchronicity”, including his meeting and communicating with Wilhelm.That was also his dialogue with China.

Jung learned Chinese, attractedso deeply by it’s rich images of the ideograph and pictograph characters, andcalled them “readable archetypes.” He used them so meaningfully in the specialmoment of his life, showed the significance of his learning of Chinese.

On his last visit to Jungin 1958, Dr. Joseph Henderson wrote that Jung took him into the garden to showhim the little stone bas-relief he had carved in Toni Wolff’s memory, placedunder the ginkgo tree that had been given to him by students of the Zurich C.G.Jung Institute. This tree is an import from China. And on the stone four setsof Chinese characters were arranged vertically. Jung told Henderson that theyread from above downwards:

Toni Wolff

Lotus

Nun

Mysterious

[13]

 

We all know that what Toni Wolff meantto Jung in his life. She was still influencing Jung’s work even after herdeath. Jung used Chinese for his memorial affection.

Laurensvan de Post recorded a late conversation he had with Jung, that wards the endof Jung’s life, he was carving in stone, “some fort of memorial of what EmmaJung and Toni Wolff had brought to his life. On the stone for his wife he wascutting the Chinese symbols meaning ‘she was the foundation of my house.’”[14]

Jung was hardly recoveredfrom the grief and lost of Toni and Emma. His son Franz knew his father sodeep, and brought a piece of stone to him. That’s almost the only way for hisself-cure. According to the book of The Dao of Jung by David Rosen, Jung carveda figure of an old Chinese man, with four Chinese characters: “Heaven-Human-Unifying-One”.[15]

We can see the image ofthe old Chinese man through the picture of Jung’s Philemon. Dr. David Rosencalled him as “Jung’s Taoist Master” in his book: The Dao of Jung. He broughthis thought to Marie Louis von Franz and C.A. Meier for consultation. MarieLouis von Franz said: “Yes, Jung favored Taoism, and he lived the Taoistphilosophy.” C.A. Meier agreed too. He said: “Yes, he (Jung) was Taoist, andtoday people don't’ realize that his psychology of opposites is virtually thesame as Taoism……he was devoutly spiritual and clearly more Taoist than anythingelse.”[16]

Jung said that it wasPhilemon, who taught him psychic objectivity, the reality of the psyche. “Andthe fact was that he conveyed to me many an illuminating idea.”[17] Jung described that “at times he seemedto me quite real, as if he were a living personality. I went walking up anddown the garden with him….”[18] So,through the dream image of Philemon, Jung kept his inner dialogue, and spiritualcommunication.

In the late Autumn of1999, when I was in the Zurich C.G. Jung Institute for training, I got a dreamwith Jung. That’s my first and only dream with him.

In the dream, John Beebe was coming tome from a hillside, wearing my coat, he told me that David Rosen was in Zurich,and wanted to see me. Then I met David in a hotel room in the evening, and wetalked about Jung and Jungian psychology till very late of the night. In thenext morning, I told him that I had a dream with Jung. So I asked him to bringme to visit Jung since we were just in Zurich. David told me that it’simpossible to visit him without appointment, and it’s not easy to make such anappointment. I tried to persuade David to make a call, said to him that “youare a famous Jungian analyst, and wrote the book of The Dao of Jung, you musthave the way for the arrangement.” David tried to explain the situation, andsaid again that Jung was too old, even could not speak clearly now. It’s uselesseven we can see him at all. But I still asked David to make a call anyhow. Hedid, and after the call, he told me that I was really lucky, Jung agreed to seeus.

So we arrived in Bollingen ( I never bethere before the dream.). Jung was there in the Tower, I sat close to him, andDavid besides me. Jung talked a lot about China. He looked like about 60 yearsold, very healthy and active. I looked at David, tried to say that you see, hewas not very old at all. After a while, I looked at David again, tried to saythat you should take a picture!

It’s quite a long conversation. Someone knocked the door, and came in to remind Jung it's the time for his nextappointment. Then, Jung asked me to follow him to his Study-room. He showed mehis closet on the wall behind his desk. When the closet was opened, there wereseveral long keys on the left side of the wall. He told me that that’s the keyto the basement, and I can use it and go there by myself.

I looked at the keys on the wall,several of them, and they were exactly the same, as long as the Chinese chopstick,old black keys. I wondered and asked Jung what’s the other keys for, and hetold me that they were for nothing, useless at all. He put them there forprotecting the real key. But since they were looked like exactly the same, Iasked Jung again how to distinguish the real key from the others. Jung said tome: “touch it, you will feel the difference.” I did touch them one by one, andgot the feeling of the real one.

It’s a quite long dream. In the latepart of the dream, I went to the basement by myself with the key, and returnedback to meet Jung again when he finished his meeting with someone?

 

Two months later after I got the dream,Dr. Murray Stein visited Zurich, and we had a lunch together. I mentioned thedream to him. Murray asked me whether I visited Bollingen, I said no.Immediately, he made a call to Ulirich Hoerni, Jung’s grandson. Ulirich came, anddrove us to Bollingen at the afternoon.

It’s a snowing day. Ulirich droveslowly and we had very interesting talk on the way. When we arrived Bollingen, Ulirich openedthe upper and lower locks of the door, but could not open the middle one. Therewere three lockers of the door. He tried several different keys, a lot of keyson a big ring. It’s snowing and cold outside, Ulirich talked by himself that he was alwaysconfused by the many keys while he was still trying. I stood besides him, andpointed to one of the keys on the ring and said, “try this one.” He tried, andit worked, the door opened. Ulirich made a joke with me: “how could youknow the key to our house?” I didn’t mention the dream I had to Ulirich then.

When we enter the door, on the wall ofthe kitchen, there hang several black long keys there, exactly the same in mydream. I touched them one by one, they made a very beautiful sound like a toneof welcoming music.

This is not dream, but true reality.Dr. Murray Stein was with me then, and he is here now.

(Dr. Murray Stein stood up, and said all of my talking is true. Heremembers clearly with all of the experience we shared together.)

In Jung’s study and bedroom of theBollingen, there was a painting by Jung of Philemon. Jung draw several paintingsof Philemon, but for this one, most striking me, is that in his left up hand,hold one key, the same long back key as in my dream, and in his right lowerhand, hang a ring of keys, several of them.

I didn't feel too much surprising, butfelt peaceful and comfortable in the heart. It seems very natural for whathappened in the dream and in the reality. When Ulirich askedme to sign my name on the guest book of Bollingen, I wrote “following my dreamto Bollingen.” In English. Ulirich said to me that “use Chinese, use Chinese.”So I wrote in Chinese again: “come to Bollingen to find the dream.”

 

So, the dialogue can have many differentways, even in the dream. That’s my presentation, based on my personalexperience, with the title of Jung and China: A Continued Dialogue. Thedialogue started from Jung, it has many different ways, it can be beyond thetime and space, it carries our memories and psyche ….. and we are stillcontinuing the dialogue.

Thank you!

 

 

[1] Murray Stein. Report on an IAAP Visit to China, IAAP Newsletter,15, 1995.

[2] Murray Stein. Report on an IAAP Visit to China, IAAP Newsletter,15, 1995.

[3] Murray Stein. Report on an IAAP Visit to China, IAAP Newsletter,15, 1995.

[4] The third chapter of Lao Tzu.

[5] C.G. Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: AChinese Book of Life. Causeway Books, New York. 1975. P.147.

[6] Chuang Tzu. The Fourth Chapter: Ways of the Human World.

[7] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P. 248.

[8] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P. 20.

[9] Chuang Tzu. The Second Chapter: On the Uniformity of All Things.

[10] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. PP. 195-196.

[11] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. PP. 197.

[12] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. PP. 197.

[13] Joseph L. Henderson, Foreword to: A Memoir of Toni Wolff, by IreneChampernowne, C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, 1980.

[14] Laurens van der Post, Jung and the Story of Our Time. Random House,New York 1975. p.177

[15] David Rosen. The Dao of Jung. Penguin Putnam, New York 1996.pp.151-152.

[16] David Rosen. The Dao of Jung. Penguin Putnam, New York 1996.preface.

[17] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P.184.

[18] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books, New York1965. P.183.

 

——摘自第二届心理分析与中国文化国际论坛文集:《灵性:意象与感应》

 

 

 

 

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