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中国文化传统的“道”《第二届》

发布人:曹础基       2013-01-28 字体:

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摘要:

一、“道”在中国文化历史中是最神圣的,又是最玄妙的。有人称之为中华民族魂、最高的信仰,是人们(特别是知识分子)梦寐以求的精神境界。连儒家的圣人孔子也说:“朝闻道,夕死可以。”

二、道是什么?大家说几千年,还没有得出一个众所认同的答案。诸子百家各有各的道,儒、道、阴阳、墨、法、兵、佛的“道”都不相同;就是儒家之道也日新月异:孔子的、荀子的、董仲舒的、韩愈的、程朱理学的、清儒的,千差万别。但有一点是共同的,即都是他们主张的核心,都是他们学派的灵魂。

三、在诸子百家中,道家以“道”命名,对“道”的论述也最充分,其道最玄虚,又最值得重视。

1,清宣颖《南华经解》谓:“六经是以道治世,庄于是直揭道体之书。”(《大宗师解》)中国哲学讲仿用,体是根本,用是作用。道家探索的是道之体,儒家讨论的是道之用,用以治世。所谓道体,就是道本身。司马迁的父亲司马谈论六家要旨,把道家置于其他各家之上,把道家之道看作是统属其他各家学说的。

2,几千年来对道家《老子》《庄于》的道的解释,基本上都是一种描述性的说明,没有超越庄自本人的描述多少。庄子在《大宗师》中最全面地谈到了道的性质:

夫道有情有信,无为无形;可传而不可受,可得而不可见;自本自根,未有大地,自古以固存;神鬼神帝,生天生地;在太极之先而不为高,在六极之下而不为深。先大地生而不为久,长于上占而不为老。……(见《浅论》49页)

3,西方信仰上帝,东方信仰佛祖。上帝和佛祖是什么?今天科技的发展无法证实。科技的发展与信仰相背离,使人们产生了危机。但西方科技的发展,却揭示了道家之道的实在性,李约瑟、卡普拉、汤川秀树等科学家认为道家之道就是“场”(能量场)。用能量场的特性对照老子说的道,几乎无不相符:

(1)有情而无形(实在而虚无〕

(2)自本自根

(3)生天生地(道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物)

(4)时空的无限(至大无外,至小无内)

“道”之信仰在科技的发展中得到支持。

四、道的价值——抽象的道似乎对我们没有多少意义,但《庄子》一书却把道说得神了,得道的人就能把事做成功,就能成为真人、至人、圣人、神人;失道的人就会把事办坏,就会成为一个飞波之民、倒置之民。如:l 做事的成败(射、注、解牛、作鐻);2 养生;3 治国;4 环保(第一个提出生态平衡问题)

五、道的修养

1 修养的目标,自然(入于天)

2 修养的方法

(1)为道日损

(2)心斋、坐忘

(3)以技通道

 

 

 

Tao in ChineseCultural Tradition

Chuji Cao

(Translatedby Zhicheng Zhou)

 

A. Tao is the most sacred, and most abstruse in thehistory of Chinese culture, It is considered as the National Spirit in china,the highest belief, and the ideal state Chinese people, especially theintellectuals, long for. Confucius said, "If a man in the morning hearTao, he may die in the evening without regret."

 

B. What is Tao? There has no been an accepted answerto this question for thousands of years. The various schools in Pre-Qin timeshave their own different Taos. Even in the Confucian schools, there aredifferent Taos for different Confucians, such as Xun Zi, Dong Zhongshu, Han Yu,Cheng brothers, and Zhu Xi. However, there is a common thing that they all takeTao as the tenets of their thoughts. Indeed, Tao is the spirits for everyancient Chinese school.

 

C. Among the various schools in Pre-Qin times, Taoismnamed by Tao discuss Tao in the most detail. Tao in this school is the mostabstruse, and it is most worthy to focus our attention to it.

1. Qin Xuan Ying said, "Six classics take Tao asthe key to run a country, while Chuang Tzu is the book in which Tao is stateddirectly." Substance and Function are two important terms in Chinesephilosophy. Taoism discusses the Substance of Tao, hoping to use it to run astate. The Substance of Tao is Tao itself. Sima Tan, the farther of Sima Qian,takes Taoism as above all other schools, and uses Taoism to unify them.

2. For thousands of years, people have followed the descriptionsof Tao in Lao Tzu, and Chuang Tzu. In the chapter of "The GreatTeuter", Chuang Tzu describes Tao in the most detail: "Tao hasreality and evidence but no action or physical form. It may be transmitted butcannot be received. It based in itself, rooted in itself. Before heaven andearth came into being, Tao existed by itself from all time. It created heavenand earth. It is above the zenith but it is mot high. It is beneath the nadirbut it is not low. It is prior to heaven and earth but it is not old. It ismore ancient than the highest antiquity but is not regarded as long ago."

3. Western people believe in God, while Eastern peoplebelieve in Buddha. But modern Science cannot prove God and Buddha. Thedevelopment of science has departed from religious belief, causing crises forpeople. However, modern science seems to prove Tao. Joseph Needham and otherscientists think that Tao is field. There are many similarities between Tao andfield.

(1) Tao has reality, but has no physical form(real but empty) .

(2) Tao is based in itself, rooted in itself.

(3) Tao makes heaven and earth

(4) Time and space are infinite.

  The belief in Tao has been supported bydevelopment of science.

 

D. The Value of Tao

Abstract Tao seems useless for people, But in ChuangTzu, Tao is useful: Anyone who masters Tao will be successful in handlingaffairs, and becomes True Man, perfect man, sage and spiritual Being; those wholose Tao will fail in handling affairs, and become people in disturbance anddisorder. The examples are:

1.  Stories for success or failure;

2.  Keeping in good health;

3.  Running a country.

4.  Environmental protection.

 

E. Cultivation for Tao.

  1. The aim of cultivation is to reach therealm of Tao.

  2. The ways for the cultivation.

(1)           Thepursuit of Tao is to decrease day after day.

(2)           Emptyingone's mind and forgetting.

(3)           Usingtechnology to master Tao.

 

——摘自第一届心理分析与中国文化国际论坛文集:《灵性:分析与体验》

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